Copper Sulfate

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Copper Sulfate

IUPAC name: copper sulfate
CAS number: 7758-98-7
Other names: cupric sulfate, blue vitriol (pentahydrate), bluestone (pentahydrate), bonattite (trihydrate mineral), boothite (heptahydrate mineral), chalcanthite (pentahydrate mineral), chalcocyanite (mineral); Copper (II) sulfate anhydrous; cupric sulfate anhydrous; Coppersulfateanhydrousgreenpowder; Copper sulphate; copper(2+) sulfate hydrate (1:1:5);Coppersulfate; Sulfuric acid, copper salt; copper(2+) sulfate; Copper(II)sulfate
Molecular formula: CuSO4 (anhydrous), CuSO4•5H2O (pentahydrate)
Molar mass: 159.62 g/mol (anhydrous), 249.70 g/mol (pentahydrate)
Appearance: blue crystal (pentahydrate), pale green or gray-white powder (anhydrous)
Density: 3.603 g/cm3 (anhydrous), 2.284 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
Melting point: 110 °C (•4H2O), 150 °C (423 K) (•5H2O), < 650 °C decompose
Solubility: soluble in water and methanol, insoluble in ethanol

Copper sulfate is a naturally-occurring inorganic salt and copper is an essential trace element in plant and animal nutrition. It is also a fungicide used to control bacterial and fungal diseases of fruit, vegetable, nut and field crops. Some of the diseases that are controlled by this fungicide include mildew, leaf spots, blights and apple scab. It is used in combination with lime and water as a protective fungicide, referred to as Bordeaux mixture, for leaf application and seed treatment. It is also used as an algaecide, an herbicide in irrigation and municipal water treatment systems, and as a molluscicide, a material used to repel and kill slugs and snails.

Copper sulfate could be used to cure copper deficiency, or as emetic for livestock. As nutrition supplement, it has high biological value, and is easy to be absorbed. Promoting the growth and health of animals, it is really vital in many actions of body.

Being a relatively benign and cheap reagent, copper sulfate attracts many applications. In inorganic field, it is used to make other feeding salt like Cuprous chloride, copper chloride and phosphoric acid copper, cuprous oxide, copper acetate, copper carbonate, etc. As analytical reagent, it is used in Fehling's solution and Benedict's solution to test for reducing sugars, which reduce the soluble blue copper(II) sulfate to insoluble red copper(I) oxide. Copper sulfate is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins. It is also used to test blood for anemia. The blood is tested by dropping it into a solution of copper sulfate of known specific gravity – blood which contains sufficient hemoglobin sinks rapidly due to its density, whereas blood which does not, floats or sinks less rapidly. In a flame test, its copper ions emit a deep blue-green light, much more blue than the flame test for barium.

Copper sulfate is employed in organic field, it could be catalyst in process of synthesizing intermediate for flavors and dye. The anhydrous salt catalyses the transacetylation in organic synthesis. The hydrated salt reacts with potassium permanganate to give an oxidant for the conversion of primary alcohols. Copper sulfate can also be used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing. It is used to make monoazo dye like reactive brilliant blue, and it often highlights the green tints of the specific dyes.

Related Names
Bluestone | Cupric Sulfate | Roman Vitriol | Blue Vitriol

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