Chemical name: choline chloride
IUPAC name: 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride, (2-hydroxyethyl)trimethylammonium chloride,
Alternative name: hepacholine, biocolina, lipotril
CAS number: 67-48-1
Other names: 2-Hydroxyethyl trimethylammonium chloride; Choline chloride, FCC Grade; 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride; 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium chloride hydrochloride
Melting point: 302℃(decomposes)
Molecular formula: HOCH2CH2N(CH3)3Cl
Molecular weight: 139.63
Choline chloride is an organic compound, and it offers choline. In another word, choline is one of the B categories of vitamin, and it is commonly in the form of choline chloride. As a quaternary ammonium salt, choline chloride has a choline cation with chloride anion. It has neither explosive nor oxidizing properties.
Choline chloride is also the salt of the naturally occurring choline. You can find natural choline in fungi, hop and kingcups and as integral part of lecithin. Choline also plays an important role in mnemonic and thought-processes, for it is the pre-stage of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As a common food additive in animal husbandry, especially for chickens where it accelerates growth, choline chloride is mass produced. In fact, it also has prominence effects on improving the quality and quantity of eggs and meat. On the contrary, shortage of choline results to fatty liver diseases, retarded growth, reduced egg-laying rate and increased mortality. Besides, choline chloride is also used as intermediate of biology medicine and pesticide.
Choline chloride is a white crystalline solid but is marketed in different forms. It has wide dispersive use as a food additive for animal husbandry. For this application area almost 100% of the produced choline chloride is either premixed as solid and then directly mixed with animal feed or marketed as a fluid compound to the customers and directly released into special installed mixing apparatus. Also, a very small amount of the choline chloride production is used for formulations in the field of plant growth regulators. In general several formulations are used for commercial applications, like bulk, in solution (up to 75%), on vegetable carriers, on amorphous silica carriers.
Choline chloride dissociates in water into the corresponding positively charged quaternary hydroxyl alkylammonium ion and the negatively charged chloride ion. Data using different amounts of choline chloride show that the lowest pH value of 4 was determined at 100 mg/L. Even if choline chloride of different specifications was used, choline chloride can be stated to be a weak acid.
Animal studies with choline chloride show a low acute toxicity after oral uptake with a range of LD50s of 3150 -≥5000 mg/kg bw determined in different studies. No acute toxicity attributable to choline was observed in humans following oral doses of ≥3000 mg choline magnesium trisalicylate/day. Evidence from animal studies and from human exposure indicates that choline chloride has low toxicity, is not mutagenic and has no developmental toxicity. This is not unexpected in view of its presence in the diet and its production in metabolic processes in the body. It fulfils key roles in nerve transmission, cell membrane integrity, and lipid metabolism. Limited animal data are available on effects on fertility, but the normal exposure of humans to appreciable amounts of choline chloride both from the diet and formed from normal metabolic processes, would argue against it having any significant adverse effects on fertility. This is supported by the fact that it has been widely used as an animal feed additive for decades with no apparent adverse effects being noted on fertility. Choline chloride is readily biodegradable according to OECD-criteria (MITI-I Test; BOD measurements) reaching 93 % degradation within 14 days.
Choline chloride is produced from ethylene oxide, hydrochloric acid, and trimethylamine, or from the pre-formed salt. In the first case, it is produced under pressure and room temperature by reaction of trimethylammonium chloride with ethylene oxide in closed systems. The reaction product choline chloride is free of ethylene oxide because it is entirely consumed in the production process.
Choline chloride aqua should be stored no lower than -12℃. Choline chloride powder should be equipped with dehumidification equipment.
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